There are two major foot types seen in the general population. The first type is the pronated foot. This type of motion is known as pronation.
See the picture below.
In this type of structure, the main problem is that the arch collapses and the heel everts meaning that a line drawn through the back of the heel does not line up perpendicular to the ground.
A normal foot has to pronate to some degree because that is how the foot absorbs shock when the heel hits the ground and the rest of the foot comes down. Excessive pronation is where many foot problems originate from, also known as the flat foot.
The almost opposite problem is seen in the supinated foot. This type of motion is known as supination.
See the picture below.
In this type of structure, the arch remains high, does not flatten out and the heel is inverted meaning that it too does not line up perpendicular to the ground but instead is tilted inward.
In general a supinated foot is a poor shock absorbing structure. Many neurological diseases will cause the so called cavus foot deformity or high arched foot.
Each type of foot structure can create certain problems in the foot all the way up to the lower back.
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